The Effect Of Climate Change On Coffee And Bees May Compound

effect of climate change

Not to get all Nicholas Cage in Wicker Man here, BEEEEEEEESSSS!!! We need our bees. Big fluffy bumbly ones, the less fluffy honey ones, the ones that are actually just a bear in a bee costume. We need them all. They pollinate our plants—like, say, our coffee trees—and help make sure we can survive on this little rock floating through space.

And like with the coffee trees themselves, climate change is endangering the bees. That may not be particularly revelatory information, but a new study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences states that climate change will affect these two things—coffee trees and bees—differently and that it may have a compound effect on coffee production.

Bees play a pretty significant role in coffee production. Taylor Ricketts, the director of the University of Vermont’s Gund Institute for Environment, tells NPR that bees are responsible for 20-25% of coffee produced by increasing the total yield via pollination. And though Arabica coffee is capable of self-pollinating, Ricketts points out that bees even “increase the quality of the beans by making their size more uniform.”

But climate change isn’t going to affect bees and coffee trees uniformly. That is to say, as temperatures rise, arable coffee lands are going to shift—possibly moving out of the Coffee Belt entirely—and this study suggests that global warming “could reduce the amount of ground usable to grow coffee in Latin America by up to 88 percent.” But the bees may not be shifting in the same way. “For example, a bee that is at the very edge of its heat tolerance won’t follow coffee into warmer areas.”

Using computer modeling, researchers predict that most coffee growing areas will experience a decrease in the number of bee species, though they do note that around 16% will see an increase.

Or to put it more succinctly, Ricketts states, “We’re going to lose a lot and not gain too much.”

Image and Article Source: sprudge.com

5 Tips for a Better Cup of Coffee

coffee

Drinking coffee is more than a routine that starts the day. It’s the routine that lets you know you’re still breathing. That being said, it’s easy to get stuck in your ways. Stubbornness—or maybe just tiredness—can keep you from improving your coffee game. We’re here to revive your routine and deliver the best coffee experience possible, directly to your caffeine-deprived brain. We don’t want you slipping. We want you sipping (perfectly-roasted coffee). Here are five small changes that will bring a major improvement to your coffee agenda:

tartine cappucino cinnamon roll

Pre-Warm That Mug

If you’re in the pour over camp, temperature is key. Getting your kettle to the right spot, just to have your coffee hit a cold mug, is a disservice to yourself (and those artisan beans you decided to splurge on). Before you add water to your ground beans and filter, pour a little of the hot H2O into your mug. Filling it about a third of the way will warm the walls of the mug during the few minutes it takes to brew your pour over. Your coffee will keep its temperature and flavor longer, kind of like putting your socks in the dryer before heading out into a blizzard. Which you should also do.

Not-Quite-Boiling Is the Way to Go

200 degrees. That’s the water-temperature that all coffee Jacuzzis should be set to. If you’re boiling your water and pouring it directly over the grounds in your French press or Chemex, let it cool it for a bit while you take a run through last night’s Twitter happenings. 20-40 seconds of wait time after your boil should lower your water temperature to around 200 degrees. Patience will make your coffee better.

whole-coffee-beans

Don’t Be Precious with Your Beans

Use them. Use the hell out of your beans. Don’t save them for special occasions, because the further you get from the roast date, the weaker the flavor will be. Around the BA Test Kitchen, we describe the two-week old bean flavor as cardboard-y, because honestly, that’s what they start to taste like. Coffee can taste like a lot of things, but we’d rather it not taste like corrugated paper. Keep your bean supply on the smaller side (don’t freeze that stuff!), and use what you have, when you have it.

The Golden Ratio

As a general rule, a 1:16 ratio of coffee to water is a great place to start for above-average beans (we’re talking the stuff you’d buy from an independent coffee roaster). We like to measure by weight (about 22 grams of coffee to 352 grams of water) for a precise ratio, but roughly it translates to about 3 tablespoons of coffee to every 12 ounces of water (or ¼ cup coffee to every 4 cups water). You can play with the ratio depending on how strong you want it.

pour-over-coffee-gooseneck-kettle-chemex

Wet Your Filter

Whether we’re talking pour over or a classic drip machine, you should be wetting your coffee filter before putting any ground beans in it. Filters always have a flavor, despite their treatment, and hitting it with some water will help get rid of it. A damp filter will also hold tighter to the surface of your machine, preventing slips and mishaps. Just a bit of water will do, no need to go full monsoon.

iced-espresso

Bonus Round: Espresso!

Wet That Screen

Oh, look at you. You have an espresso machine at home. We’re jealous. But you better know how to use it properly, if you’ve made that kind of investment. First things first, make sure the screen that sits on top of your ground, compacted beans is totally wet before brewing. Getting the whole screen wet will make sure water runs evenly through the entire thing while brewing. This means the coffee sitting beneath will be hydrated evenly, and your flavor will be concentrated and consistent.

Get to Know Your Espresso: Break up the Crema

That tan, creamy froth sitting on top of the dark brown espresso has a name. It’s called crema. And when you’re testing out some new beans, it holds a lot of flavor information. Breaking up the crema with a spoon (read: stirring it into your espresso) releases tons of aromatics that let you know what that coffee is all about. Take a minute. Get to know the beans. You’ll both be better for it.

Iced Espresso Cool Down

Iced espresso is a truly wonderful thing, but pouring that hot liquid directly over frozen water means a bunch of melted ice (the same can be said for icing regular coffee at home). The workaround is simple. After pulling a shot (or two) of espresso, add the cold milk (whether it be whole, hemp, almond, or whatever’s cool at the moment) directly to the espresso. Then pour the cooler espresso over the ice. A lower temperature espresso means less water, which means more smack-you-in-the-face espresso flavor. We like the face-smacking.

Images and Article Source: bonappetit.com

Apple silently kills off some colors for iPhone, iPad & Apple Watch accessories

A variety of colors for official Apple accessories are reportedly vanishing from the company’s online and retail stores, suggesting that it’s phasing out some options, and/or allowing stocks to deplete before new devices arrive this fall.

iphone

In Japan, nine iPhone 7 cases, 18 iPad cases, and 13 iPad Smart Covers have disappearedMacotakarasaid on Friday. Also gone are a number of Apple Watch options, include 12 sport bands, seven nylon bands, and some Nike and Hermes accessories.

The situation is less severe in countries like the U.S. and the U.K., but may still be indicative of a global trend.

Apple often scales back the color options for older accessories as new devices launch, choosing to shift focus. It’s also possible however that some colors won’t return in a new form if Apple considers them unprofitable.

The company is expected to launch at least four new devices this fall, led by the “iPhone 8”“iPhone 7s,”and “iPhone 7s Plus.” The fourth is a third-generation Apple Watch with LTE.

Apple released updated iPads earlier this year, and indeed some of the accessories gone in Japan were for the 9.7-inch iPad Pro and iPad mini 4. Three of them, however, were Smart Covers for this year’s 10.5-inch Pro.

Source: appleinsider.com

 

Tips for your cell phone during a major storm

cell phone in emergency

Keep your mobile phone battery charged. In case of a power outage, have another way to charge your phone like an extra battery, car charger or device-charging accessory. Applicable sales tax holidays are a great time to stock up on cell phone accessories. To help customers prepare for the storm, AT&T is discounting batteries 20% at local retail stores in affected areas.

Keep your mobile devices dry.The biggest threat to your device during a hurricane is water. Keep it safe from the elements by storing it in a baggie or some other type of protective covering, like an Otterbox phone cover.

Have a family communications plan. Choose someone out of the area as a central contact. Make sure all family members know who to contact if they get separated. Most importantly, practice your emergency plan in advance.

Program all of your emergency contact numbers and e-mail addresses into your mobile phone. Numbers should include the police department, fire station and hospital, as well as your family members.

Forward your home number to your mobile number in the event of an evacuation. Call forwarding is based out of the telephone central office. This means you will get calls from your landline phone even if your local telephone service is disrupted. If the central office is not operational, services such as voicemail and call forwarding may be useful.

Track the storm and access weather information on your mobile device. Many homes lose power during severe weather. You can stay up to speed as a DIRECTV customer, by streaming local weather channels using the DIRECTV application on your smartphone. If you subscribe to mobile DVR, you can also stream every channel directly to your phone.

Camera phones provide assistance. If you have a camera phone, take, store and send photos and video clips of damage to your insurance company.

Use location-based technology. Services like AT&T Navigator and AT&T FamilyMap can help you find evacuation routes or avoid traffic from downed trees or power lines. They can also track a family member’s wireless device if you get separated.

Keeping the lines open for emergencies
During evacuations, the storm event and its aftermath, network resources will likely be taxed. To help ensure that emergency personnel have open lines, keep these tips in mind:

Text messaging. During an emergency situation, text messages may go through more quickly than voice calls because they require fewer network resources. All of AT&T’s wireless devices are text messaging capable. Depending on your text or data plan, additional charges may apply.

Be prepared for high call volume. During an emergency, many people are trying to use their phones at the same time. The increased calling volume may create network congestion, leading to “fast busy” signals on your wireless phone or a slow dial tone on your landline phone. If this happens, hang up, wait several seconds and then try the call again. This allows your original call data to clear the network before you try again.

Keep non-emergency calls to a minimum, and limit your calls to the most important ones. If there is severe weather, chances are many people will be attempting to place calls to loved ones, friends and business associates.

Source: kbtx.com

Investigators hope 3D technology sheds light on cold case

SUMMIT COUNTY – Inside the Summit Medical Center’s Ten Mile Room, Summit County Sherriff Jamie FitzSimons and Summit County coroners are trying to solve a mystery.

Matt Renoux

It started in the rugged mountains of the Ten Mile Range between Copper Mountain and Breckenridge in an area called the Sky Chutes.

Last year, hikers found the skeletal remains of a man who in the winter of 2012 brought a backpack full of high-end survival gear and three magazines of ammunition, and then ended his own life with a gun.

“The gear he had leans to survival in bad weather and yet he took his life,” FitzSimons said.

The gun’s serial number was removed and the man didn’t have identification. There wasn’t a car, truck or even a snowmobile nearby.

After a year without leads, investigators turned to Forensic Artist Beth Buchholzt to use the man’s skull to make a 3D rendering out of clay of what he may have looked like. 

“The first step is to do a 3D laser scan of the skull and then those are printed into plastic on a 3D printer and the clay is applied,” Buchholzt said.

It’s not a perfect match. The nose, ears and lips might not be exact, but it’s pretty close.

“It’s not going to be an exact portrait of him, but hopefully someone who knew him in life who was friend or family member might recognize him,” Buchholzt said.

Sheriff FitzSimons says identifying the man would finally close a case more than four years in the making.

“Hopefully they can look at this clay rendition and the clothing and try to put it all together and remember something,” said FitzSimons.

If you have any information that might help, you can contact the Summit County Coroner’s Office at 1-970-668-2964, or email the Summit County Sheriff’s Department at Robert.Pearce@SummitCountyCO.gov.

Source: 9news.com

Five Phone Accessories That Make Travel Easier

Your phone is already the hub of every trip you take: the carrier of boarding passes and hotel reservations; the holder of books and movies to help pass the time; the conduit through which travel photos are shared on social media.

All by itself, it makes travel easier. But with a few key accessories, you can travel more easily with your phone. Let’s take a look at the items worth adding to your carry-on bag.

A mobile charger with wall prongs

mycharge-hub-plus

Some mobile chargers, like this one from MyCharge, have built-in wall prongs and cables.

Photo by Rick Broida/CNET

Here’s a no-brainer: You need a mobile power bank to keep your phone running. These come in all shapes and sizes, but the vast majority require you to BYO wall plug so you can recharge the charger. That’s a hassle: one more thing to remember, one more thing cluttering up your bag.

That’s why I always choose a charger that can plug right into the wall. For example, the Romoss UP10 (currently $30 on Amazon) features a 10,000mAh battery, dual USB ports (a 1-amp and a 2.1-amp) and folding wall prongs. And it can charge your phone while it’s plugged in and recharging itself.

More convenient still, the MyCharge HubPlus series provides power, wall prongs and built-in charge cables: Apple Lightning and Micro-USB, for example, or Micro-USB and USB-C. Of course, there’s also a standard USB port for connecting your own cable if need be. These are pricey, usually between $60 and $100, but also compact and super-convenient.

A 2-in-1 sync/charge cable

The Zeus Dual Charger magically fuses a Lightning and Micro-USB connector onto the same plug.

Zeus

One cable to rule them all. That’s the idea behind the Zeus Dual Charger, a fairly standard-looking USB cord — except that it has a Micro-USB and Lightning connector integrated onto a single plug!

I’ve never seen this before; most 2-in-1 cables just have two separate tips (usually with one nested into the other or the two side-by-side). Here you’ve got a single braided 6-foot cable that can plug into an Apple device or just about anything else. The Zeus sells for $20.

Is that any better than, say, a dual-plug cable like this one from Nkomax? Actually, the latter lets you charge two devices simultaneously, so it’s probably the more logical choice. Whatever you decide: one cable is better than two!

A good gripper

ungrip-in-hand

The Ungrip is the kind of product that helps prevent accidental phone drops.

Photo by Rick Broida/CNET

Travel means a lot of phone handling. It’s in and out of your pocket or purse all day; it’s clutched for dear life while you dash to catch your flight. All that hustle and bustle greatly increases the risk of dropping your phone — and that could sour your trip right quick.

Solution: Get a better grip on your phone. There are a variety of products — most priced under $20, many under $10 — that stick to the back of your phone or case and give you a much more secure grip. I’m partial to the Ninja Loop (about $5) and Ungrip (about $10), which are notable for their versatility and comfort, respectively.

A good pen

ace-teah-as-kickstand

This pen is mightier than, well, other pens.

Ace Teah

Wait, a pen? Yeah, you know: that thing you write with sometimes. How can a pen make travel easier? When it’s also a stylus. And a kickstand.

Like this one: the Ace Teah 3-in-1. A longtime favorite of mine, this thick-barreled pen is not only comfy to write with, but also nice to, er, stylus with. (Flip it over and you can use the capacitive tip to scribble on your screen.) Better still, it has a built-in phone stand that can even accommodate a phone in a case. Now you’ve got a way to prop up the screen when you want to watch a movie or read a book. A mere six bucks buys you a pack of six pens in assorted happy colors.

A car mount

Traveling by car? For long trips in particular, when you’re likely to be relying on navigation apps, listening to podcasts and so on, it’s critical to keep your phone out of your lap or center console and up near eye level. That’s not only for easier screen access, but also for safety.

I’m partial to magnetic mounts, but there are a lots of different options. Check out this roundup of three ways to dashboard-mount your phone.

What phone-related travel accessories do you consider essential? Share your picks in the comments!

Source: cnet.com

Matterport grabs $5M more to accelerate deep learning development for their 3D capture tech

3d capture tech

Matterport is picking up new funding as it looks to speed the development of deep learning tech in its capture technology which brings immersive views of spaces into 360-degree 3D

The company, which largely specializes in scanning spaces for commercial and real estate purposes, announced today that they’ve picked up $5 million in funding from Ericsson Ventures. This strategic raise brings the company’s total announced funding to $66 million according to Crunchbase.

As 3D rendering grows more important thanks to spatial computing platforms like VR and AR, Matterport has one of the biggest libraries of 3D environments thanks to its loyal and prolific users who have uploaded over a half million scans of public and private spaces which are already viewable in VR.

A big focus of this new investment is taking these 3D scans and striving to gather more and more insights from them through deep learning-based AI development which will not only help them understand what’s in a space but how to improve the quality of the 3D images themselves.

“Ericsson Ventures saw the tremendous opportunity Matterport has to extend our technology lead by using our massive library of 3D models as a deep learning training dataset to create AI that will be the basis for our next generation products,” Matterport CEO Bill Brown said.

In May the company launched its Pro2 camera, which addressed a big request from existing customers who were excited about the potential of 3D 360 room scans but still needed 2D images to put into print materials. The camera retails for $3,995 and is available now.

Huddesfield Designers Bring New Ginetta Racing Car to Life

The in-house design team at the 3M Buckley Innovation Centre (3M BIC) has used 3D technology and augmented reality to help Ginetta fine tune its latest prototype. 

3d racing car

Having already provided a similar service for the launch of its first prototype in 2015, Ginetta approached the 3M BIC design team to animate its £1.3millon LMP1 machine.

This enabled the car manufacturer’s own in-house design team to visualise the cars development, as well as showcase it at a launch event at Silverstone Circuit to potential buyers.

Ewan Baldry, technical director at Ginetta, said: “3D technology is an important part of our design process and marketing. To see something on a flat CAD screen has a few limitations, so being able to see something you can move around is very helpful.

“The main thing with a project such as this, from a marketing point of view, is to show credibility in the early stages to demonstrate to people the direction you are heading in, therefore having 3D visuals was key.”

The animation for the LMP1 car was created using physical STL data (used for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) testing or wind tunnel analysis) submitted to the 3M BIC design team by Ginetta.

Some adjustments had to be made to the original model in order for it to be re-textured with the corresponding racing livery, using Autodesk 3DS Max.

The team then rigged the car for animation and set the lighting for rendering purposes.

Paul Tallon, lead consultant designer at the 3M BIC, said: “3D rendering is a process in which an algorithm calculates the movements of a virtual photon on interaction with a surface of varying qualities.

“With the 3M BIC’s High Performance Computer and the latest Vray rendering software, we were able to get the detail to look as real life as possible in our render. This was particularly important for Ginetta who was looking for a realistic render to show their clients.”

As well as the on-screen render, the design team produced the car in augmented reality (AR) for use with the Microsoft Hololens, enabling people to walk around a scaled down holographic version of the car.

A 3D model was also printed in nylon by selective laser sintering (SLS) using the industrial additive manufacture printer on the 3M BIC’s Innovation Avenue, all of which were showcased at the launch event at Silverstone.

Ewan added: “Having worked with the 3M BIC team previously we knew they’d do the project justice. Again, we were really pleased with the service. We didn’t give them very much time, but they still produced something which was professional and to a high standard.”

Significant interest in the LMP1 has already been expressed following the launch event, from both new and existing customers.

The 3M BIC design team is currently working on the next stage of the process which involves creating a serious gaming experience that allows users, particularly racing drivers, to virtually test the LMP1 car on a track with varying different scenery and weather conditions to enhance the driver experience.

Leeds-based Ginetta, the leading British race car manufacturer, was founded in 1958 and acquired by racing driver and businessman Lawrence Tomlinson in 2005.

Since then it has taken the racing industry by storm, selling cars across the world and training some of the brightest stars in motorsport.

Source: bqlive.co.uk

VR tech helps to develop ships of the future

Tritec Marine is using Virtalis’ new ActiveMove CVR system which integrates a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) to form a small, turnkey VR solution in a box.

Ships VR

David Scott, Director and General Manager, Tritec Marine explained: “We had been investigating Virtual Reality (VR) for some time, ever since we attended an industry conference on the digital enterprise, and we saw real value in bringing our CAD data into 3D to fully communicate our conceptual designs.”

Tritec is known for naval architecture and embedding teams of engineers to supervise builds in China and Korea, but the company is increasingly moving towards developing concept ship designs which directly solve existing and challenging maritime transportation problems or improve on current practices.

“We have to work on overturning preconceived ideas,” said Scott, “as our design concepts have been developed from first principles, not from what is there already. We realised that VR isn’t just for gaming and consumer sales and that for us the value will lie in being able to walk disparate stakeholders through our concepts. I experienced CyberAnatomy and thought that I very quickly understood more about the human anatomy than I ever could have assimilated from books. Then we discovered that Virtalis already operated in this sector and that its Visionary Render software can take our CAD data and swiftly render it into virtual 3D ships.”

Visionary Render delivers advanced rendering of huge models in real-time with ease of importing from a range of data sources, maintaining naming, hierarchies and the all-important metadata.

ActiveMove CVR combines a best in class consumer headset and a VR-ready Lenovo laptop integrated into a custom designed case to provide a VR solution that can be assembled in minutes.

“Since we have ventured into the virtual world”, commented Scott, “we have had a veritable tsunami of ideas about how we can use the technology, from virtual prototyping before the build to digital twinning for maintenance. It is apparent that VR technology makes cost and time savings from day one, because the snagging is done in the virtual world, not in the real world. So far, we have only shown our models via CVR and Visionary Render to internal stakeholders, but they have been very impressed and it is clear that VR helps us get our message across to different audiences from different backgrounds.”

The first project that CVR is being deployed on involves radical concept designs for ships transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). With a recognition that autonomous ships are considered by many to be the future of commercial shipping, Tritec is developing a revolutionary ship/port interface that automatically moors and unloads its cargo.

Source: dpaonthenet

3D Simulations Show How Galactic Centers Cool Off

magnetic kink

The most extreme outbursts in the universe are the mysterious jets of energy and matter beaming from the center of galaxies at close to the speed of light. The narrow jets typically form in opposing pairs, and they are associated with supermassive black holes and other exotic objects. The mechanisms that drive and dissipate the jets are not understood.

A team of researchers has developed theories supported by 3D simulations to explain what’s at work.

“These jets are notoriously hard to explain,” said Alexander “Sasha” Tchekhovskoy, a former NASA Einstein fellow who co-led the new study as a member of the Nuclear Science Division at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), and the Astronomy and Physics departments and Theoretical Astrophysics Center at UC Berkeley. “Why are they so stable in some galaxies and in others they just fall apart?”

This rendering illustrates magnetic kink instability in simulated jets beaming from a galaxy’s center. The jets are believed to be associated with supermassive black holes. The magnetic field line (white) in each jet is twisted as the central object (black hole) rotates. As the jets contact higher-density matter the magnetic fields build up and become unstable. The irregular bends and asymmetries of the magnetic field lines are symptomatic of kink instability. The instability dissipates the magnetic fields into heat with the change in density, leading them to become less tightly wound. (Berkeley Lab, Purdue University, NASA)

Almost half the jets’ energy escapes in the form of X-rays and stronger forms of radiation. The researchers showed how two different mechanisms that are both related to the jets’ interaction with surrounding matter, also known as “ambient medium” and serve to reduce half of the energy of the powerful jets.

“The exciting part of this research is that we are now coming to understand the full range of dissipation mechanisms that are working in the jet no matter the size or type of jet,” he said.

Tchekhovskoy co-led the study with Purdue University scientists Rodolfo Barniol Duran and Dimitrios Giannios. They concluded that the ambient medium itself has a lot to do with how the jets release energy.

“We were finally able to simulate jets that start from the black hole and propagate to very large distances—where they bump into the ambient medium,” said Duran.

Tchekhovskoy has studied these jets for over a decade. He said that an effect known as magnetic kink instability causes a bend in the direction of some jets. This along with another effect that triggers a series of shocks within other jets appear to be the primary mechanisms for energy release. The density of ambient medium that the jets encounter serves as the key trigger for the types of the release mechanism.

“For a long time, we have speculated that shocks and instabilities trigger the spectacular light displays from jets. Now these ideas and models can be cast on a much firmer theoretical ground,” said Giannios, assistant professor of physics and astronomy at Purdue.

The length and intensity of the jets can illuminate the properties of their associated black holes like their age and size and if they are actively “feeding” on surrounding matter. The longest jets extend for millions of light years into space.

“When we look at black holes, the first things we notice are the central streaks of these jets. You can make images of these streaks and measure their lengths, widths and speeds to get information from the very center of the black hole,” Tchekhovskoy noted. “Black holes tend to eat in binges of tens and hundreds of millions of years. These jets are like the ‘burps’ of black holes—they are determined by the black holes’ diet and frequency of feeding.”

Nothing can escape a black hole’s interior, but jets manage to draw their energy from the black hole. In the black holes, the laws of physics allow them to spew energy and matter even when they suck in surrounding matter.

The friction and heating of gases spiraling in toward the black hole cause extreme temperatures and compression in magnetic fields. This results in energetic backlash and an outflow of radiation that escapes the black hole’s pull.

Earlier studies have shown how magnetic instabilities in the jets can occur when jets run into the ambient medium. A jet experiencing the instability can change direction when it rams into matter outside the black hole’s reach.

The same instability frustrated scientists working on early machines attempting to create and harness a superhot, charged state of matter known as plasma in efforts to develop fusion energy that powers the sun. The space jets, also known as active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets, are a form of plasma.

The latest study found that if an earlier jet had “pre-drilled” a hole in the ambient medium surrounding a black hole and the matter impacted by the newly formed jet was less dense, a different process is at work in the form of “recollimation” shocks.

These shocks, formed as matter and energy in the jet, bounce off the sides of the hole. The jet loses energy with every shock and immediately reforms a narrow column until its energy dissipates to the point that the beam loses its tight focus and spills out into a broad area.

“With these shocks, the jet is like a phoenix. It comes out of the shock every time,” though with gradually lessening energy, Tchekhovskoy said. “This train of shocks cumulatively can dissipate quite a substantial amount of the total energy.”

The researchers designed the models to smash against different densities of matter in the ambient medium to create instabilities in the jet that mimic astrophysical observations.

New, higher-resolution images of areas in space where supermassive black holes are thought to exist—from the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), for example—should help inform and improve models and theories that explain jet behavior. Future studies could also include more complexity in the jet models, like a longer sequence of shocks.

“It would be really interesting to include gravity into these models, and to see the dynamics of buoyant cavities that the jet fills up with hot magnetized plasma as it drills a hole in the ambient medium,” Tchekhovskoy said. “Seeing deeper into where the jets come from—we think the jets start at the black hole’s event horizon (a point of no return for matter entering the black hole)—would be really helpful to see in nature these ‘bounces’ in repeating shocks, for example. The EHT could resolve this structure and provide a nice test of our work.”

A paper on this study was published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Source: Electronics360